South Africa

Area
1 221 037 km2
Population (2011)
51 770 560
GDP (2012)
390 919 US$ mill.
Installed power capacity (2012)
44 GW
Electricity consumption (2011)
262 540 GWh
Generation from RE sources (2012)
-
Generation from CSP (2012)
-
Primary energy production (2009)
160.6 MTOE
Primary energy net export (2009)
13.6 MTOE
Total primary energy supply (2009)
144 MTOE
Total final consumption (2009)
68.7 MTOE

Khi Solar One (Abengoa)


Artist rendering of South Africa's first solar tower plant

In November 2003, the South African Government published the White Paper on Renewable Energy setting a target of 10,000 GWh renewable energy contribution to final energy consumption by 2013, to be produced mainly from biomass, wind, solar and small-scale hydro. This meant approximately 4% of the projected electricity demand for 2013.

In 2010, the Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) was released by the South African Department of Energy (DoE). According to the IRP, 42% of the total additional new capacity until 2030 was to be sourced from renewable energy sources, including 1,000 MW of CSP. In June 2011, the DoE announced the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPP Programme), designed to start and stimulate the renewable energy industry in South Africa.

CSP development under the REIPP Programme:

  • Window 1:
    • KaXu Solar 1: 100 MW parabolic trough plant with up to 3 hours of molten salt energy storage system. Expected to start operation in 2015.
    • Khi Solar 1: 50 MW steam tower plant with a steam accumulator for 2 hours of thermal storage. Expected to start operation in 2015.
  • Window 2:
    • Bokpoort: 50 MW parabolic trough plant with 9.5 hours of thermal storage. Under construction. Commercial operation is planned for Q3 2015.
  • Window 3:
    • Xina Solar One: 100 MW parabolic trough plant with 5 hours of thermal storage. Under construction. Commercial operation is expected for Q4 2017.
    • Ilanga CSP 1: 100 MW parabolic trough plant with 5 hours of thermal storage.

In the first window, the average bidding prices were R2.69/kWh. The Bookport project offered a bid price of R2.51/kWh. Projects awarded in Window 3 have a new tariff system: a base price of R1.65/kWh payable for 12 hours every day and a 270% premium on the base price payable for electricity dispatched during the 5 peak demand hours.

Currently, ESKOM is developing a 100 MW dry cooled molten salt tower plant with 9 – 12 hours of TES. Target date of completion is 2017.

Information about the CSP plants developed in South Africa